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A religious or solemn affirmation to tell the truth or to take a certain action.
Latin: an observation by a judge on a matter not specifically before the court or not necessary in determining the issue before the court; a side opinion which does not form part of the judgment for the purposes of stare decisis May also be referred to as "dicta" or "dictum."
The process by which one party takes exception to some statement or procedure. An objection is either sustained (allowed) or overruled by the judge.
The person who is to receive the benefit of someone else's obligation; that "someone else" being the obligor. Also called a "promisee." Some countries refer to the recipient of family support as an "obligee".
A person who is contractually or legally, committed or obliged, to providing something to another person; the recipient of the benefit being called the obligee. Also known as the "promisor."
An elusive concept used in the context of criminal law to describe a publication which is illegal because it is morally corruptive. The common law has struggled with this word as society has evolved towards greater tolerance of alternative sexual behavior. Historically, it included any lewd material which had no apparent social value, which was offensive to contemporary community standards of decency, and even material which tended to invoke impure sexual thoughts. As an example of a modern definition, Canada has defined obscene material as any publication a dominant characteristic of which is the undue exploitation of sex, or of sex and crime, horror, cruelty or violence.
An act which tends to impede or thwart the administration of justice. Examples include trying to bribe a witness or juror or providing law enforcement officers with information known to be false.
A crime; any act which contravenes the criminal law of the state in which it occurs. Spelled "offence" in Commonwealth countries.
A explicit proposal to contract which, if accepted, completes the contract and binds both the person that made the offer and the person accepting the offer to the terms of the contract. See also "acceptance".
The publication of cumulated court decisions of state or federal courts in advance sheets and bound volumes as provided by statutory authority.
A person whose occupation consists of investigating customer complaints against his or her employer. Many governments have ombudsmen who will investigate citizen complaints against government services.
A draft law before a legislature which contains more than one substantive matter, or several minor matters which have been combined into one bill, ostensibly for the sake of convenience. The omnibus bill is an "all or nothing" tactic.
On a person's own recognizance
Release of a person from custody without the payment of any bail or posting of bond, upon the promise to return to court.
Latin: the burden. It is usually used in the context of evidence. The onus of proof in criminal cases lies with the state. It is the state that has the burden of proving beyond reasonable doubt. In civil cases, the onus of proof lies with the plaintiff who must prove his case by balance of probabilities. So "onus" refers both to the party with the burden, and to the scope of that burden, the latter depending whether the context is criminal or civil.
An agreement or contract which does not have an ending date but which will continue for as long as certain conditions, identified in the agreement, exist.